Ceftriaxone - Drug InformationGeneric Name : Ceftriaxone | Pronunciation : SEF-trye-AX-one
Why it is prescribed (Indications) :
This medication is a cephalosporin antibiotic, prescribed for certain bacterial infections such as gonorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease, middle ear infection, meningitis (inflammation of the covering of the brain), and infections of the lungs, ears, skin, urinary tract, blood, bones and joints and typhoid.
When it is not to be taken (Contraindications):
Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins; neonates. Do not use calcium or calcium-containing solutions or products with or within 48 hours of ceftriaxone administration due to risk of calcium-ceftriaxone precipitate formation in neonates.
Pregnancy Category :
Category B :Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women OR Animal studies have shown an adverse effect, but adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in any trimester.
Dosage & When it is to be taken :
Middle ear infection: Children - IM A single dose of 50 mg/kg (max, 1 gram) is recommended.
Meningitis in children: Children - IV: Recommended initial dose is 100 mg/kg (max, 4 gram), followed by 100 mg/kg/day (max, 4 gram/day) for 7 to 14 days.
Skin or Skin Structure Infections: Children - IV/IM: Recommended daily dosage is 50 to 75 mg/kg once a day or in equally divided doses twice daily (max, 2 gram/day).
Surgical Prophylaxis: Adults - IV: 1 gram as a single dose 30 min to 2 hours before surgery.
Uncomplicated Gonococcal Infections: Adults - IM: 250 mg as single dose.
Miscellaneous Infections: Adults - IV: Usual adult daily dosage is 1 to 2 g once a day or in equally divided doses twice daily, depending on the type and severity of infection (max, 4 gram/day).
Children- IV: Recommended daily dose is 50 to 75 mg/kg IV once a day or in divided doses every 12 h (max, 2 gram/day). IV/IM: Recommended daily dose is 50 to 75 mg/kg IV/IM in divided doses every 12 h (max, 2 gram/day).
Acute Bacterial Otitis Media Persistent/Treatment Failure: Children - IM/IV 50 mg/kg/ IM or IV (not to exceed 1 gram) daily for 3 days.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (mild to moderate): Adults - IM 250 mg given IM as a single dose with doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for 14 days, with or without metronidazole 500 mg orally twice daily for 14 days.
Uncomplicated Gonococcal Infections: Adults - IM 125 mg given IM as a single dose.
Typhoid:Adult- IV: 4gm/day for 2 days, followed by 2g/day. Child- 75mg/day for 2 days.
How it should be taken :
It comes as a solution for injected to be administered intravenously (into a vein) or intramuscularly (into a muscle), by a healthcare provider.
Warnings and Precautions :Caution should be exercised in patients with history of penicillin allergy; severe renal impairment; pregnancy and lactation; problem with digestive system, especially colitis (inflammation of the large intestine), malnutrition (you do not eat or cannot digest the nutrients needed for good health), super infection.
Be sure for the full course of treatment. If you do not, the medicine may not clear up your infection completely.
Side Effects :
Central Nervous System- Dizziness, Headache.
Gastrointestinal- Diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.
Blood- High concentration of eosinophils, platelet counts in the blood, decrease in white blood cells, low prothrombin levels, bleeding.
Lab tests- Increase in liver enzyme, elevated BUN (Blood urea, nitrogen).
Genitourinary- Vaginal inflammation.
Miscellaneous- Fatal ceftriaxone-calcium precipitates in lung and kidneys of neonates.