Trade Names/Brand Names :
- Sectral, Prent.
Other Name :
Acebutolol is used for treating hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, and angina.
Why it is prescribed :
Messages from nerves are transferred to the heart by special chemicals known as neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters (adrenaline and noradrenaline) bind to tiny areas on the heart known as beta receptors, to convey their message. Acebutolol binds with these beta receptors and does not allow the messages from adrenaline and noradrenaline to reach the heart. As a result, the heart beats slowly and with lesser force. Slow beating of the heart reduces the blood flow in blood vessels and thus reduces the inside pressure on the walls and controls your hypertension. The drug controls abnormally fast and uneven heart rate in the case of cardiac arrhythmia. Since the heart treated with acebutolol beats slowly and with less force, it uses lesser energy and thus chest pain in angina is relieved.
When it is not to be taken (Contraindications):
The drug is contraindicated in people with following conditions:
Heart failure, poor circulation, and low blood pressure.
Persistent slow heart rate (bradycardia).
Atrioventricular block (AV block) in the heart.
Tumor of adrenal gland called as pheochromocytoma.
Known allergy to the drug.
Category B :
Animal studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and appropriate studies on pregnant women are lacking.
Dosage & When it is to be taken (Indications):
For hypertension: Initial treatment is with 400 mg once a day or 200 mg twice a day. Maintenance dose is 400-800 mg per day.
For ventricular arrhythmia: Initial therapy is with 200 mg twice a day. Maintenance dose is 600 to 1200 mg per day in divided doses.
Missed a Dose? :
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If your next dose is less than 8 hours away, skip the missed dose.
Never take two doses together.
How it should be taken :
Take the drug with water.
Taking the drug after meal is advisable to reduce chances of stomach upset. However, the drug can be taken on an empty stomach.
Warnings and Precautions :
Acebutolol interacts with many drugs. Make sure your doctor knows all the drugs you are taking before starting the treatment with acebutolol.
Never stop the drug abruptly without consulting your doctor.
Side Effects :
Heart - Chest pain, low blood pressure and heart failure.
Central Nervous System - Depression, fainting, dizziness, fatigue, headache, feeling light-headed, sleeplessness and abnormal dreams.
Skin and mucous membranes- Rash, swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat) and itching due to allergic reaction.
Gastrointestinal - Constipation, diarrhoea, indigestion, flatulence, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain.
Genitourinary - Increased urination at night, painful urination.
Musculoskeletal - Joint/muscle pain.
Respiratory - Cough, difficulty in breathing.
Liver - Increase in liver enzymes, jaundice, dark urine, clay-coloured stools
Eye - Dry eye and eye pain.
Miscellaneous - Development of anti-nuclear antibodies, swelling of ankles or feet.
Other Precautions :
The drug should be used with extreme caution in patients with the following conditions:
Pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Kidney functioning problems.
Liver functioning problems.
Asthma or breathing problem or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Chest pain due to Prinzmetals angina, an angina which occurs due to spasm of blood vessels.
Skin condition known as psoriasis.
Muscle weakness due to myasthenia gravis.
Hyperthyroidism or high thyroid hormone level.
In patients with diabetes, since it may mask the effects of low blood sugar levels.
Drug Interactions :
Acebutolol should be avoided with:
Other beta blockers due to additive effects.
Other drugs that can slow down the heart like verapamil, digitalis, amiodarone and diltiazem.
Drugs used in the treatment of asthma due to opposite effects on the bronchi.
Antidiabetes medications since acebutolol can block the signs of hypoglycemia.
Drugs that act on alpha receptors. Along with alpha agonists like ephedrine, it can produce excessive rise in blood pressure, while with alpha blockers like prazosin, it can result in excess fall in blood pressure.
NSAIDs like ibuprofen and naproxen, which may block the effect of acebutolol on blood pressure.
Anticholinesterase drugs used in Alzheimer's disease like rivastigmine due to additive effect on the heart and blood pressure.
Drugs that lower blood pressure and increase potassium levels like chlorthiazide.
Other drugs that may lower blood pressure like antihypertensive medications, aldesleukin, and barbiturates.
Storage Conditions :
Store is a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight. Keep out of the reach of children.
Schedule : H
Prescription drugs - Drugs to be sold only under the prescription of a Registered Medical Practitioner.