Stem Cell Research and Therapy

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Cord Blood - Source Of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

- Lifecell Conference at Chennai Jan-2006 byDr. Naynesh Kamani

Dr. Naynesh Kamani of Children’s National Medical Center, GW University School of Medicine gave a special lecture on “Cord Blood: An alternative source of Hematopoietic Stem Cells for Transplantation in Children” in an International symposium on Stem Cell Therapy and Research, organized by Life Cell in association with Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Centre in Chennai on 6th January in Chennai, India. 

Hematopoietic stem cell is capable of giving rise to different blood cell components and cells of the immune system. These cells in turn are required for maintenance of blood volume and also protect the body from infection. Hematopoietic stem cells are required for production of billions of new blood cells and immune cells every day in our body. The hematopoietic stem cells, commonly used for stem cell transplantation can be obtained from either peripheral blood or bone marrow. 

Hematopoietic stem cells can be used for the treatment of a variety of malignant and non-malignant conditions. Hematopoietic stem cells are currently used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, multiple myeloma, Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, aplastic anemia, beta-thalassemia, Blackfan-Diamond syndrome, globoid cell leukodystrophy, sickle-cell anemia, severe combined immunodeficiency, X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, Hunter's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, Lesch Nyhan syndrome, and osteopetrosis.

Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, often face adverse cytotoxic effects, the most significant of which is the destruction of hematopoietic cells. Therefore, hematopoietic stem cells are collected from these patients before chemotherapy and stored in liquid nitrogen. Following chemotherapy, it is replaced into the same patient. This kind of a transplantation is called autologous stem cell transplantation. 


Sources Of Hematopoietic Stem Cells: 

Bone marrow: Hematopoietic stem cells are collected from bone marrow of the patient. The bone is punctured with a sternal needle, the contents aspirated and transferred to a sterile collection bag. The obtained sample is then processed before it can be used. 

Peripheral Blood: Hematopoietic stem cells are collected from circulating blood. Research has found that injecting a cytokine (granulocyte colony stimulating factor) enables migration of the hematopoietic stem cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood. 

Umbilical Cord Blood: Researchers have found that cord blood from human umbilical cord and placenta are rich sources of hematopoietic stem cells. 
 

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