Menstruation is a process of shedding blood from the uterus that usually begins for women between the age of 11 and 14 years and continues till menopause. It indicates the start of a reproductive life in women. Menstrual cycle may range from 21 to 45 days. The average length of a cycle is 28 days. At the time of menstrual period, a woman may experience abdominal cramping, lower back pain, bloating and sore breasts, mood swings, irritability, headache and fatigue. Most women will have symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), which include emotional and physical symptoms that start one or two weeks before the menstrual period.
Period or Menstrual Cycle Calculator
is an easily accessible online tool to predict the expected date of next three menstrual periods. This calculator helps find if you have missed your period. Key in your last menstrual period and average length of the cycles.
Do you know these facts about menstruation?
- Most women bleed only about 80 ml or less during their periods.
- At the time of ovulation you may have slight spotting and /or pain.
- Do you know why women don't get periods during pregnancy? When you get pregnant, hormones released in the body prevent endometrium from shedding off as bleeding and ensure thick lining of the uterus, which provides protection and nourishment to the fetus.
- Menstrual cycle starts with menarche and ends with menopause.
Do you know what exactly happens during each menstrual cycle?
Female body undergoes 3 phases during every menstrual cycle. It includes follicular phase, ovular phase and luteal phase.
Follicular Phase (Day 1-13):
- Menstrual period starts as hormone (progesterone and estrogen) levels drop and uterine lining (endometrium) breaks down. Bleeding may last for 3 to 5 days though it can vary from 2 to 7 days.
- Around 7th day, Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) stimulates follicles containing egg to develop on the ovary.
- This is the time period during which one of the follicles mature and inner lining of the uterine wall thickens and nourishes with blood and nutrients thus making uterus suitable for the implantation of a fertilized egg.
Ovular Phase (Day 14):
- As the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) rises at the middle of the cycle, ovulation takes place.
- During this phase, matured follicles rupture and release an egg from the ovary.
- An egg can stay in the fallopian tube for only 24 hours. This is the best time to get pregnant.
Luteal Phase (Day 15-28):
- The ruptured follicles develop into corpus luteum that releases hormones (progesterone and estrogen) necessary for thickening of the endometrium. This is needed for the implantation of the fertilized egg.
- If fertilization does not occur, corpus luteum dies and hormonal levels drop, eventually making endometrium to shed along with an unfertilised egg resulting in the next menstrual period.