Melanoma can develop because of prolonged exposure to the sun or tanning beds. The ultraviolet (UV) rays damage the DNA of the skin over time and may thereby alter the normal functioning of the melanocytes. There are medications to treat melanoma but they have failed to reach expectations. A compound tested in mice has shown to be effective in killing melanoma cancer cells without affecting the nearby healthy cells.
When a patient's immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas, Type 1 diabetes develop. The number of beta cells will slowly decrease and the body will no longer be able to maintain normal blood sugar (blood glucose) levels. A recent trial finds that retraining the immune cells may slow down the progression of type 1 diabetes.
Telomeres help to maintain the integrity of chromosomes, and consist of repeated DNA-sequences that cap and protect eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres shorten with each cell division, and eventually reach a critical length. This in turn leads to cellular death, or so-called senescence or apoptosis. The study is published in Springer Nature''s journal Neuropsychopharmacology and focuses on a person''s DNA sequences called telomeres, which are essential for cellular replication.